Acta Physica chronicles the development of the theory of Holeums - theorized stable, quantized gravitational bound states of micro black holes.

The Holeum was first proposed in 2002 [Class. Quantum Grav. 19 2927, arXiv:gr-qc/0308054]. Holeums range in size from ultra-microscopic particles that inhabit the quantum realm to supermassive bound states that contain billions of solar masses. Look here for a brief overview.

Section 1: Introducing Holeums: Stable, quantized gravitational bound states of Micro Black Holes

- 1.1 – Gravitational bound states of Micro Black Holes
- 1.1.1 – The Choice of the Theory
- 1.1.2 – The classical or the quantum nature of the system
- 1.1.3 – The fi nite size of the black holes
- 1.1.4 – The form of the potential inside and outside the bound state and the Bound State Wisdom (BSW)
- 1.1.5 – Benchmarking the BSW: A Paradigm Of the Truncated Hydrogen Atom (POTHA)
- 1.2 – A stable Holeum
- 1.3 – Gravitational Radiation
- 1.4 – Dark matter and domain walls
- 1.5 – Conclusions

Section 2: The intensity of the Gravitational Radiation emitted by a Holeum

- 3.1 – Black holes in a fi nite, static universe
- 3.2 – The modifi ed Hawking evaporation equation for black holes in a fi nite static universe
- 3.3 – The modi fied Hawking evaporation equation for black holes in a fi nite static universe with blackbody radiation
- 3.4 – Consequences of an expanding universe
- 3.4.1 – Consequences of an expanding universe on the temperature T of the background radiation
- 3.4.2 – Consequences of an expanding universe on the number density of primordial black holes
- 3.5 – A Note on Primordial Black Hole Velocities
- 3.6 – Holeum Formation

Section 4: From the Quantum realm to the Astrophysical scale: Introducing the Macro Holeum

- 4.1 – Constructing a Macro Holeum from the inside out
- 4.2 – The Black Holeum
- 4.3 – The Macro Holeum occupies space
- 4.4 – The “screening factor” and the mass of a Macro Holeum
- 4.5 – Properties of Macro Holeums
- 4.6 – Properties of Black Holeums
- 4.7 – The Density of the Macro Holeum
- 4.8 – The Energy Bands of the Macro Holeum
- 4.9 – The determination of the parameters of a Macro Holeum from the frequency band spectrum
- 4.10 – Can LIGO detect the gravitational radiation emitted by Holeums and Black Holeums?
- 4.11 – The Macro Holeum’s ground state and line spectra